Long March 4 is the part of Long March Rocket series. Long March rockets are a family of useful launch rockets used by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). Development and design falls under the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT). In English, rockets are abbreviated as LM- shipment and CZ- within China, as in “Chang Zheng” which means Long March in Chinese pinyin. Rockets named after the Chinese Red Army’s 1934-35 Long March, during the Chinese Civil War.
Long March was a military retreat run by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which preceded the People’s Liberation Army, to avoid the pursuit of Kuomintang. army. At present, Long March was a series of marches, as various Communist forces of the south fled north and west.
However, the most famous one began in the province of Kiangsi (Jiangxi) in October 1934 and ended in the province of Shensi (Shaanxi) in October 1935.
The First Leading Forces of China Soviet Republic, led by an inexperienced military commission, were on the brink. of the destruction by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek’s troops in their strange location in Kiangsi province.
The CCP, under the last command of Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai, escaped from the western and northern valleys, reportedly covering more than 9,000 miles (5,600 mi) in 370 days. The route passed through the most difficult part of western China to the west, then northward, to Shensi.
(More on Long March 5 Rocket here)
(More on Long March 3 Series here)
What Is Long March 4A?
Changzheng 4A, CZ-4A and LM-4A,also known as Long March 4A but confused as Long March 4,due to the lack of any designated rocket, was the orbital carrier for the Chinese rocket companies. Launched from Launch Area 7 at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. It was a three-phase rocket, used for double launch in 1988 and 1990. On its first flight, on September 6, 1988, it fitted the FY-1A satellite into orbit. In its second and final flight, it launched another satellite, FY-1B. It has retired and is not in use.
Why Was It Made?
The standard load of CZ-4 for loading is 1,650kg up to 600km in the solar lane and 4,680 kg in the 200km round lane. On September 7, 1988, the CZ-4A launched its first airplane, successfully launching China’s first satellite to monitor climate. Another weather satellite was successfully launched by CZ-4A on September 3, 1990.
How Does It Work?
Long March 4, the main phases and associated rocket boosters use dinitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizing agent and UDMH as fuel. The upper (third) phase of the Long March 3 rockets use the YF-73 and YF-75 engines, using Liquid hydrogen (LH2) as fuel and Liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer.
What Is Long March 4B?
The Long March 4B also known as Chang Zheng 4B, CZ-4B and the LM-4B is a functional Chinese orbital Launch car. Launched from Launch Complex 1 at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, it is a 3-phase vehicle, widely used to place satellites on Earth’s orbit and Sun-related orbits. It was first launched on May 10, 1999, with the FY-1C weather satellite, which would later be used to test the Chinese anti-satellite arrows of 2007.
How Does It Work?
The long March 4 series, also known as Chang Zheng 4, uses high-toxic nitrogen tetroxide and UDMH (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine) hypergolic propellants like other Long March rockets, as well as older rockets like American Titan II ICBM Yosh used.Chang Zheng 4B is a rocket with a length of 44.1 meters and a width of 3.35 meters, fitted with three phases all using the above-mentioned N2O4 / UDMH fuel. The first stage is powered by four YF-21C engines, and the stage produces 2,961.6 kilonewtons (kN) of thrust.
What Is Long March 4C?
The Long March 4C, also known as Chang Zheng 4C, CZ-4C and LM-4C, formerly known as the Long March 4B-II, is a Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Launched from Jiuquan, Taiyuan, and Xichang Satellite Launch Centers, it has 3 stages. March 4C long vehicles were used to launch Yaogan-1 satellites, Yaogan-3 synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and Fengyun-3A satellites orbiting the weather. On December 15, 2009, Long March 4C was used to launch Yaogan-8.
Because it was still designated as Long March 4B-II during its first flight, the first launch is often mistaken as Long March 4B. The Long March 4C is based on the Long March 4B, but has a higher regenerative stage, as well as a larger payload.
On September 1, 2016, Long March 4C failed due to unknown reasons. The long March 4C rocket exploded from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi but failed to load its payload, the Gaofen 10 satellite, onto its suspended route.
How Does It Work?
Long March 4C is a three-phase rocket using a combination of hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. The Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST) developed long march 4C and, It is one of the premier institutes under CASC.
The Future Of The Long March Rockets
Long March 5, 6 and 7 are a new generation of rockets sharing new 1200kN class YF-100 engines, burning the RP-1 / LOX, in contrast to the previous series 2, 3 and 4 using expensive and dangerous explosives for N2O4 / UDMH. The 5 series is a heavy-lift delivery vehicle, with a power output of 25,000kg to LEO and the 6 series is a launch vehicle with a capacity of 1,500 kg to LEO , and the 7 series is a medium-lift launch car, with a capacity of 14,000 kg in LEO.
But the two most advanced rockets are the Long March 8 and the Long March 9.
Long March 8 Rockets
The 8 series is a relatively new renewable rocket with a capacity of 7,600 kg to LEO.
A new series of introductory vehicles, aimed at launching Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). In early 2017, it was expected to be based on Long March 7, and have two solid fuel boosters, and was first launched at the end of 2018.By 2019, it was intended to be partially reused. The first class will have legs and wings grid (like the Falcon 9) and may be equipped with side boasters that are not attached. Long March 8 was launched for the launch of the exam on December 20, 2020 and was launched on December 22, 2020.
(More on Chinese rocket Long March 8 breaks single launch record here)
Long March 9 Rockets
Long March 9 (LM-9, CZ-9, or Changzheng 9, is the concept of the heavy Chinese rocket proposed for 2018 which is currently under investigation. A maximum load capacity of 140,000 kg to Earth orbit (LEO) is planned, 50,000 kg to trans-lunar injection or 44,000 kg to Mars.
It’s first flight is expected in 2028 or 2029 in preparation for landing at some point by 2030; a sample of Mars’ return machines has been proposed as the first large machine. It has been reported that approximately 70% of the hardware and equipment required for the test aircraft are tested, and the first engine test will be done by the end of 2018.
The proposed 2011 design will be a three-phase rocket, the first 10-meter-wide rocket and using a set of four engines. Many types of rocket have been proposed, the CZ-9 being the largest with the above-mentioned liquid fuel booster with the above LEO 140,000 kg, the CZ-9A with just two boosters and a LEO payload capacity of 100,000 kg, and finally CZ. -9B has a core platform and a LEO payload capacity of 50,000 kg. Approved in 2021, the Long March 9 is classified as a heavy-lift launch vehicle.
A very different design of the LM-9 was announced in June 2021, with more engines and no external boosters.
(More on What is so special in long March 9 Rocket here)
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